The Alliance for a Just Society just released a report comparing living wages acrossseveral states (PDF). Not surprisingly, Connecticut turns out to be a really expensive place to live in: the living wage for a family of four, with one working adult, is $35.18 an hour, only second to New York City in the sample. If both adults are working, the living wage is $24.92 per working adult.
What is a living wage? According to the report:
A living wage is one that allows families to meet their basic needs, without public assistance, and that provides them some ability to deal with emergencies and plan ahead. It is not a poverty wage. Notably, though, it does not account for paying off debt.
New York City is the only region in the study with higher housing costs; no other place in the study comes close to child care cost. Taxes are also an important factor, but they are (mostly) derived from the fact that the required income to pay for increased housing and child care cost is considerably higher.
The General Assembly approved this session a sizable expansion of the early care and education funding, but these numbers show that we have a long way to go. About housing, we do live in an expensive state, that´s for sure.
You can find more coverage about the report at the CT News Junkie.
40% of all households depend on women as the sole or primary breadwinner. Yet, today in Connecticut women are paid 77cents for every dollar paid to a man for the same work. In reality this means that women must donate an average of three months work each year before they begin to be paid equally to their male counterparts. This wage gap is found across all income levels and all levels of educational attainment. (PCSW Research Brief)
But what does it mean for our economy?
When considering the wage gap, single parent households that are headed by working women face greater barriers to economic security for themselves and for their children. So what would it mean if women received equal pay? There would be additional money for groceries, child care payments, and rent; equal compensation could make the difference between poverty and economic sustainability for many working mothers. In fact, it is estimated by the Institute for Women’s Policy Research that the very high poverty rate for working single mothers would fall by nearly half, from 28.7 % to 15%. This in turn will greatly reduce children living in poverty. With fewer families in poverty Connecticut will pay far less for social services, there will be a larger tax base and children will have a greater opportunity to grow up in a healthy and positive environment. The result would be an economically stronger Connecticut.
What can be done?
During a recent round table discussion at the Permanent Commission on the Status of Women, Senator Blumenthal said the time for equal pay is now. He along with others in Connecticut’s democratic congressional delegation, including Chris Murphy and Rosa DeLauro, are hoping to gather enough support to pass the Paycheck Fairness Act of 2014. The Paycheck Fairness Act would build upon the Equal Pay Act which of 1963 by addressing some of the loopholes that exist in that legislation. It would require that:
- employers rather than employees carry the burden of proof when addressing equal pay issues
- companies be prohibited from taking retaliatory action against employees who raise concerns about gender-based wage discrimination
- penalties be strengthened for equal pay violations, including both compensatory and punitive damages
Blumenthal believes there is majority support for this bill; however the Senate was unable to gather the 60 votes needed to prevent a filibuster in the Senate. He is hoping that with additional support and advocacy work, this bill will pass before years end. For more information :
- Blumenthal Calls For Passage Of Paycheck Fairness Act, Demands Equal Pay For Women
- Hispanic Women’s Wage Inequality data show that Connecticut is one of the ten worst states in the country:
Five teenage parents sit in folding chairs at the front of the Opportunities Industrialization Center (OIC) Community Room in New Britain. Each is the son or daughter of a teen parent; some are third generation teen parents. Several have graduated from high school; others will be graduating this year. Sitting with them are program facilitators, Jennifer and Troy. Both were themselves teen parents and now they are using their knowledge and experience to guide and mentor these students.
For the past five weeks these young parents have been participating in a communications and public speaking class at the Hospital of Central Connecticut’s Family Enrichment Center in collaboration with New Britain OIC. Jennifer Hernandez, Program Manager at the Family Enrichment Center taught the course. This is the culminating event. Their final presentations are based on a lifetime of understanding about the issues and concerns facing teen parents.
One by one each young parent stands at the microphone, introduces him or herself and eloquently speaks of the difficulties faced when juggling parenting, school and work as a teen. Not one asks for sympathy or expects others to approve of their circumstances. Instead, each voices the reality of being a teen with all of the responsibilities of an adult.
Their messages came from two places, appreciation and advocacy.
Each in their own voice expressed appreciation for the support and mentoring offered by the OIC and the Family Enrichment Center. From these programs they have found a helpful, supportive community that cares about them and cares about their children. They have learned about child development, the importance of early literacy, children’s developmental stages and behavior and the value of good nutritional habits. Several spoke of New Britain’s low third grade reading scores and the connection between their own responsibility as parent and the success of their children. The awareness of how their actions impact the well being of their children is far beyond that of a typical teenager.
There was also a call to the audience to advocate for needed supports, especially quality childcare for parents who need to complete their education. Without childcare, none of these young parents would have the ability to complete their high school education. Of course, without high school it is nearly impossible to secure employment that would support a family.
As each parents spoke, it became clear that the experiences these teens have had with adults have not always been positive. They explained the pain when educators and other adults in their lives do not understand their situation. Whether through comments, actions or just expressions, all of these students have experienced the sting of being judged by adults. Several parents asked that training be provided for educators, focusing on the circumstances of becoming and being a teen parent. They hope that this education for school staff would lead to a greater understanding of their situation.
Through it all they show resilience. What is clear is how much they love their children and how committed they are to ending the generational cycle of teen pregnancy in their family. They have dreams for their futures and the future of their children.
As parents, educators and advocates, it is our responsibility to listen to their voices, understand their circumstances and provide direction and hope.
In their own Words:
“We must end the cycle of teen pregnancy and take the path less traveled. “
“When I graduate I want to go to art school.”
“We as parents must learn the proper way to take care of ourselves and our children.”
I want to go to college to learn to work with young children.”
“I want to be a beautician. That is my dream”
“Just because we have a hard time juggling between parenting , going to school, working... it doesn't mean we are being lazy."
In the words of Jennifer Hernandez:
"What I would want others to understand is that once our teen parents have decided to parent, the discussion, the interactions…. need to promote success. There is no turning back. The decision has been made and we as a society need to support encourage and motivate these young people to be all they can be. Continuing to place our values, thoughts and beliefs about the morality of teen parenting is senseless once the child is here. I am not saying to promote teen parenting, I am saying once the decision is made they are not only teens; they are parents who are parenting our future."
For more information, you can check their website here.
As we have mentioned in the past, concentrated poverty is rising in Connecticut. An area of concentrated poverty is defined as census tracts with poverty rates of 40 percent or more. Currently 5.4 million Americans live in these areas and the number has been increasing steadily since 2000. In a fascinating report, Elizabeth Kneebone and Alan Berube at the Brookings Institution analyze
the data. Surprisingly, suburban areas in the sunbelt are some of the hardest hit, but the numbers for some of Connecticut's metro areas are dismal:
- Harford/West Hartford/East Hartford: 22.3% live in concentrated poverty areas, 15th worst in the country.
- New Haven/Milford metro area: 17.9% live in concentrated poverty areas, 25th worst in the country.
- Bridgeport/Stamford/Norwalk: 7.9%, 71st worst in the country.
CAHS has published some very interesting research in the past on this subject:
- For information town by town in our state a great starting point is Connecticut´s Kids Count Data Book.
- The Kids Count Data Center has all the data sets available in electronic form, and enables you to play with the data right there. You can plot, for instance, the differences between Hartford and its suburbs.
- Pulling Apart: Connecticut Inequality from 1977 to Present (with CT Voices for Children): on how Connecticut went from being one of the most egalitarian places in the world to one of the most unequal states in the country.
- Opportunity in Connecticut: The Impact of Poverty, Race and Education on Family Economic Success (PowerPoint here): a good overview on how race and poverty impact income mobility in the state.
- Less about poverty, but a stark picture of disparities: The Geography of Gun Violence in Connecticut.
Several media outlets covered the launch of the national Kids Count Data Book on Tuesday, with some interviews and in depth coverage of the data presented.
- For those who missed the event, you can watch the full event on CT-N here, streaming.
- Fox 61 had an extensive piece, as well. You can watch the video here, interviews to CAHS´staff included.
- NPR had a very interesting segment.
- CT News Junkie report on the event, also with some interesting details.
- WFSB interviewed Jim Horan, our executive director, on the data release.
- A good piece by Public News Service, quoting yours truly.
- The New Haven Register, Middletown Press and Register Citizen also ran pieces on the report.
Full video and photo gallery of the event after the jump.
This is a first in a series of posts that CAHS will be doing on the 2014 Annie E. Casey KIDS COUNT National Data Book release. Below is our press release that summarizes the reports findings regarding CT’s kids. Stay tuned for updates – including a recap of today’s release event at the Legislative Office Building (find more information and RSVP here) and posts that take a deeper dive into the 16 indicators that give us insight to the health, education, economic-well being and family and community context of our states’s children. The full report is available now here.
Child Poverty in Connecticut Has Increased Since 1990 despite Education Gains, New National Publication Reports
Number of children living in poverty has increased by 50 percent in the past 25 years according to the Annie E. Casey Foundation’s 2014 KIDS COUNT Data Book
Hartford – The number of children living in poverty in Connecticut has increased by 50 percent since 1990, according to a new report released by the Annie E. Casey Foundation. Nationwide, child poverty numbers are up since the recent recession, with nearly 16.4 million children in families below the federal poverty level. The good news is that both nationally and in Connecticut there have been steady improvements over the past 25 years in the numbers of children attending preschool and a decline in the number of students not proficient in reading and math.
Connecticut is ranked 7th overall on the report’s child well-being indicators that span education, health, economic well-being, and family and community context. The state ranked as high as 3rd in the pre-recession 2006 and 2007 years. The KIDS COUNT Data Book evaluates the latest data on children and families for every state, the District of Columbia, and the nation.
Comparing data collected in 1990, the first year the KIDS COUNT Data Book was released, to the most recent available data, the 25th edition of the national KIDS COUNT Data Book reveals that in Connecticut:
- Housing costs are a burden to children and their families. Over 40 percent of children in Connecticut are living in families that spend 30 percent or more of their income on housing. This places Connecticut near the bottom of all states (43rd).
- More children are living in high poverty neighborhoods. The percentage of children living in neighborhoods with high concentrations of poverty has nearly doubled since 1990. There has also been a significant increase in the number of children living in single parent families. In 1990, it was 1 in 5 children; in 2014 the report finds that it is now 1 in 3 children.
- Children are progressing in the areas of education and health. Connecticut’s children have improved significantly in education since 1990 – graduation rates and test scores have seen double digit percentage increases, and the state ranks 1st in the nation on the number of children who report a preschool experience. Connecticut also has a comparatively low-rate of uninsured children, and the lowest child and teen death rate in the country.
“This newest report shows us that Connecticut, one of the wealthiest states in the country, is falling behind,” said Jim Horan, Executive Director of the Connecticut Association for Human Services (CAHS). “The report also shows that a strong commitment paired with investment can bring about results. In recent years the Governor and the legislature have prioritized universal preschool access, and this year we were ranked number one in children reporting preschool experiences.”
Horan added, “We need to show this same commitment to our state’s poorest families in other areas – we need to allocate our time and resources to proven workforce training and support programs, greater affordable housing options, and outreach to our most vulnerable neighborhoods.
As the KIDS COUNT Data Book is being released in Baltimore, CAHS will be holding a conversation about the findings of the report, and next steps for the state, at a July 22 event at the State’s Legislative Office Building, Room 1C. The event will begin at 11:00 a.m.
The 2014 National KIDS COUNT Data Book is available in the KIDS COUNT Data Center, which also contains the most recent national, state and local data on hundreds of measures of child well-being. Data Center users can create rankings, maps and graphs for use in publications and on websites, and view real-time information on mobile devices.
The Connecticut Association for Human Services (CAHS) is a nonprofit policy and program organization that promotes family economic security strategies to empower low-income working families to achieve financial independence. Our mission is to end poverty and engage, equip, and empower all families in Connecticut to build a secure future.
The Annie E. Casey Foundation creates a brighter future for the nation’s children by developing solutions to strengthen families, build paths to economic opportunity and transform struggling communities into safer and healthier places to live, work and grow. For more information, visit www.aecf.org. KIDS COUNT® is a registered trademark of the Annie E. Casey Foundation.
We will be on the radio this Tuesday, July 15th! Tune in WICC600 in Bridgeport / Fairfield County to hear us discuss two-generation programs live on air. You can listen live through their website here, or using the Rdio app on your smartphone or tablet. What are two-generation programs, you might ask? See below!
Parents are a key component of children success. We know that kids are more likely to succeed when parents are involved, but their influence goes beyond that their direct support. More educated parents, for instance, for their kids, motivate them, and help them navigate the education system, while creating an expectation for success.
The data is very clear in this regard. A recent study by the Foundation for Children Development analyzing student outcomes for low income kids found that children of parents who have not graduated from high school are much less likely to be proficient on reading and math. In Connecticut, only 22% of kids are proficient by 8th grade, and just 14% are in math. This numbers are borne in part from the support that those kids can receive, but poverty also pays a role: 52% of households where the mother did not graduate from high school are poor, and 58% are not securely employed.
This has prompted many advocates to advocate for a two-generation strategy regarding children´s education. We know that better educated parents can provide a more support to kids in school. We know better educated adults are more likely to have good jobs and provide the stable environments that children need to thrive, specially at a very early age. As a result, programs that focus their work both on the adults and kids of a household are considerably more effective: they are able to provide better learning experiences for the children, while helping parents to move up to better jobs, empowering them. This report from CLASP provides an excellent overview of this approach.
Again - CAHS has been advocating for this kind of policy solutions as well. We will actually be talking about these programs tomorrow July 15th on WICC600 Bridgeport - tune in!
- Although it is important to keep in mind than students with six figure debt burdens are relatively rare, this does not mean that the issue is not important.
- The total amount of student debt out there is enormous, enough to become a real drag for the economy.
- To make them worse, they are incredibly hard to shake off, even in bankruptcy.
- There are some studies pointing out that college grads with a debt burden are delaying marriage, moving out from their parent´s place or getting a mortgage.
- Above all, a reminder: the students that are the most burdened with loans are those that have a fairly small amount. Sure, a lawyer or doctor might have a huge bill, but community college dropouts will often have a lot more trouble paying back their loans with their much smaller income.
Right now there are two interesting proposals to improve how we pay for college:
- "Pay it forward", or income based repayment. We covered this system in the past, in a blog post. Basically, students can attend college for free, but pay a fixed percentage of their income over a period of time (say, 15 years) upon graduation. As Sara Goldrick-Rab explains in this article, however, the system sounds good on paper, but it is much less progressive that it sounds. "Pay it forward" plans focus on tuition, but this is only a small percentage of the cost of attending to college - room and board and books are an even larger barrier. Implementation would only work if it is universal; without it we will only see a regressive market segmentation. The article is well worth a read - as we often say, there is not such a thing as a magical solution, and "pay it forward" would only work under very specific conditions.
- What is the alternative, then? Sara Golrick-Rab has a bold alternative: a free two year college option. Basically, have public institutions offer the first two years of college for no cost. In a way, we would extend the K-12 system to K-14. You can read her proposal here.
There is, as usual, an often forgotten policy tool that has a lot of potential: work study. Working Poor Families Project just released a new report on how work study is often underused, and how it could play a major role in making college more affordable. You can read their study here.
In a recent article (PDF) Greg J. Duncan, Katherine Magnuson, and Elizabeth Votruba-Drzal examine the effects on poverty on school readiness. They compare how good kindergarten kids are in basic skills like recognizing letters, counting, basic shapes and word sounds, breaking down the results by income. The results are pretty staggering:
Low income and poor kids start kindergarten systematically behind their peer. Less than 20% of poor kids can be considered proficient recognizing letters, compared to more than 70% for middle class families. This is a huge disparity than exist before most children enter the public education system - and it persists, or even widens, over time.
What are the causes of this gap? The authors review the evidence in depth; Brookings has an excellent post today assessing this issue. The main question is, of course how poverty affects this disparity, and what steps can be taken to reverse this gap. Their policy recommendations:
- Focus on early childhood poverty: If it turns out that poverty is most devastating in early childhood, then increasing the cash flow to families with very young children is a good investment. In a recent policy brief, for example, we proposed making the Earned Income Tax Credit more generous for children under the age of 5.
- Tie cash to behaviors: One way to deliver cash assistance is by using cash payments to reward positive behaviors such as children’s school attendance or preventative health care. New York City’s Family Rewards program, for example, ties cash rewards to several indicators of children’s education, preventative health care, and parental employment.
- Don’t cut family income: If higher income expands opportunity, then the reverse is also true. The authors warn that “reductions in the generosity of programs such as the EITC can be expected to reduce children’s success.
That is - addressing poverty is important, but we also need to invest in pre-K education. The legislature just took some bold steps in this direction this year - and we should keep moving towards universal access to pre-K.